Dr. Hrayr Shahinian: Endoscopic frontal craniotomy is performed through a minimally invasive incision in the skin crease at the bridge of the nose, between the two eyebrows. Through a 1.5-centimeter craniotomy, a 2.7-millimeter endoscope is introduced and advanced along the base of the brain, between the brain and the skull. The endoscope is advanced all the way to the area of the optic chiasm. Tumors such as craniopharyngiomas located in the midline and densely adherent to the optic chiasm, can be removed completely and under direct vision. The incision is closed and the scar is virtually imperceptible at one year. Pre-operative and post-operative MRI's show a complete resection of the craniopharyngioma.